Increased detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Sandakan division, Sabah as revealed by PlasmoNex (TM)

Goh, X.T. and Al Lim, Y. and Vythilingam, I. and Chew, C.H. and Lee, P.C. and Ngui, R. and Tan, T.C. and Yap, N.J. and Nissapatorn, V. and Chua, K.H. (2013) Increased detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Sandakan division, Sabah as revealed by PlasmoNex (TM). Malaria Journal, 12. ISSN 1475-2875

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Abstract

Background: Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite that is widespread in humans in Malaysian Borneo. However, little is known about the incidence and distribution of this parasite in the Sandakan division, Malaysian Borneo. Therefore, the aim of the present epidemiological study was to investigate the incidence and distribution of P. knowlesi as well as other Plasmodium species in this division based on a most recent developed hexaplex PCR system (PlasmoNex (TM)). Methods: A total of 189 whole blood samples were collected from Telupid Health Clinic, Sabah, Malaysia, from 2008 to 2011. All patients who participated in the study were microscopically malaria positive before recruitment. Complete demographic details and haematological profiles were obtained from 85 patients (13 females and 72 males). Identification of Plasmodium species was conducted using PlasmoNex (TM) targeting the 18S ssu rRNA gene. Results: A total of 178 samples were positive for Plasmodium species by using PlasmoNex (TM). Plasmodium falciparum was identified in 68 samples (38.2) followed by 64 cases (36.0) of Plasmodium vivax, 42 (23.6) cases of P. knowlesi, two (1.1) cases of Plasmodium malariae and two (1.1) mixed-species infections (ie, P. vivax/P. falciparum). Thirty-five PlasmoNex (TM) positive P. knowlesi samples were misdiagnosed as P. malariae by microscopy. Plasmodium knowlesi was detected in all four districts of Sandakan division with the highest incidence in the Kinabatangan district. Thrombocytopaenia and anaemia showed to be the most frequent malaria-associated haematological complications in this study. Conclusions: The discovery of P. knowlesi in Sandakan division showed that prospective studies on the epidemiological risk factors and transmission dynamics of P. knowlesi in these areas are crucial in order to develop strategies for effective malaria control. The availability of advanced diagnostic tool PlasmoNex (TM) enhanced the accuracy and accelerated the speed in the diagnosis of malaria.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ISI Document Delivery No.: 194VC Times Cited: 0 Cited Reference Count: 88 Goh, Xiang Ting Al Lim, Yvonne Vythilingam, Indra Chew, Ching Hoong Lee, Ping Chin Ngui, Romano Tan, Tian Chye Yap, Nan Jiun Nissapatorn, Veeranoot Chua, Kek Heng University of Malaya High Impact Research J-20011-73822; University of Malaya Research Grant (UMRG) RG192/10HTM; University of Malaya Student Grant We would like to thank Mr. Sukri from Telupid Health Clinic, Sabah for the assistance in sample collection and retrieving the medical records of patients; the staff of this clinic for their assistance throughout the study and all who provided blood samples. This work was supported by funds from University of Malaya High Impact Research (J-20011-73822 for IV and YALL), University of Malaya Research Grant (UMRG) (RG192/10HTM for TCT) and University of Malaya Student Grant (XTG, NJY). Biomed central ltd London
Uncontrolled Keywords: Polymerase-chain-reaction human malaria parasites vivax malaria severe thrombocytopenia imported malaria peninsular malaysia falciparum malaria monkey malaria infection humans
Subjects: R Medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine
Depositing User: Ms azrahani halim
Date Deposited: 09 Oct 2013 08:34
Last Modified: 09 Oct 2013 08:34
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/8453

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