Toxicological features of catha edulis (Khat) on livers and kidneys of male and female sprague-dawley rats: a subchronic study

Alsalahi, A. and Abdulla, M.A. and Al-Mamary, M. and Noordin, M.I. and Abdelwahab, S.I. and Alabsi, A.M. and Shwter, A. and Alshawsh, M.A. (2012) Toxicological features of catha edulis (Khat) on livers and kidneys of male and female sprague-dawley rats: a subchronic study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. ISSN 1741-427X

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Toxicological_Features_of_Catha_edulis_(Khat)_on_Livers_and_Kidneys_of_Male_and_Female_Sprague-Dawley_Rats.pdf

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Abstract

Hepato- and nephrotoxicity of Khat consumption (Catha edulis Forskal) have been evoked. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate such possible hepatorenal toxicity in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats (SD rats) focusing primarily on liver and kidney. In addition, female and male rats were investigated separately. Accordingly, forty-eight SD-rats (100-120 g) were distributed randomly into four groups of males and female (n = 12). Normal controls (NCs) received distilled water, whereas test groups received 500 mg/kg (low dose (LD)), 1000 mg/kg (medium dose (MD)), or 2000 mg/kg (high dose (HD)) of crude extract of Catha edulis orally for 4 weeks. Then, physical, biochemical, hematological, and histological parameters were analyzed. Results in Khat-fed rats showed hepatic enlargement, abnormal findings in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of male and female SD-rats and serum albumin (A) and serum creatinine (Cr) of female as compared to controls. In addition, histopathological abnormalities confirmed hepatic and renal toxicities of Khat that were related to heavy Khat consumption. In summary, Khat could be associated with hepatic hypertrophy and hepatotoxicity in male and female SD-rats and nephrotoxicity only in female SD-rats.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ISI Document Delivery No.: 049ZP Times Cited: 0 Cited Reference Count: 45 Cited References: Admassie E, 2011, J ETHNOPHARMACOL, V136, P246, DOI 10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.042 Al-Akwa AA, 2009, J ETHNOPHARMACOL, V125, P471, DOI 10.1016/j.jep.2009.07.012 Al-Habori Molham, 2005, Expert Opin Drug Saf, V4, P1145, DOI 10.1517/14740338.4.6.1145 Al-Habori M, 2002, J ETHNOPHARMACOL, V83, P209, DOI 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00223-4 Ali WM, 2010, MAYO CLIN PROC, V85, P974, DOI 10.4065/mcp.2010.0398 Al-Mamary M, 2002, PHYTOTHER RES, V16, P127, DOI 10.1002/ptr.835 Al-Mamary M, 2001, NUTR RES, V21, P1393, DOI 10.1016/S0271-5317(01)00334-7 Al-Motarreb A, 2010, J ETHNOPHARMACOL, V132, P540, DOI 10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.001 Ardouin C, 1979, Med Trop (Mars), V39, P263 Ashafa AOT, 2009, AFR J BIOTECHNOL, V8, P949 Aziz HA, 2011, OBES RES CLIN PRACT, V5, pE305, DOI 10.1016/j.orcp.2011.03.008 Bongard S, 2011, EUR ADDICT RES, V17, P285, DOI 10.1159/000330317 Burke MD, 2002, CLIN LAB MED, V22, P377, DOI 10.1016/S0272-2712(01)00002-6 Chapman MH, 2010, NEW ENGL J MED, V362, P1642, DOI 10.1056/NEJMc0908038 Corkery JM, 2011, ANN I SUPER SANITA, V47, P445, DOI 10.4415/ANN₁₁₀₄₁₇ Coton T, 2011, LIVER INT, V31, P434, DOI 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2010.02338.x Cox G., 2003, ADV PSYCHIAT TREATME, V9, P456, DOI 10.1192/apt.9.6.456 Getahun W, 2010, BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, V10, DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-10-390 GHANI NA, 1987, SOC SCI MED, V24, P625 Giannini EG, 2005, CAN MED ASSOC J, V172, P367, DOI 10.1503/cmaj.1040752 HALBACH H, 1972, B WORLD HEALTH ORGAN, V47, P21 Hoffman R, 2010, J ETHNOPHARMACOL, V132, P554, DOI 10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.033 Johnston DE, 1999, AM FAM PHYSICIAN, V59, P2223 KALIX P, 1984, GEN PHARMACOL, V15, P179, DOI 10.1016/0306-3623(84)90156-3 Kassim S, 2010, J ETHNOPHARMACOL, V132, P570, DOI 10.1016/j.jep.2010.09.009 Limdi JK, 2003, POSTGRAD MED J, V79, P307, DOI 10.1136/pmj.79.932.307 LUQMAN W, 1976, ANN INTERN MED, V85, P246 Mahmood SA, 2008, AFR J TRADIT COMPLEM, V5, P271 Manghi RA, 2009, J PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS, V41, P1 Michalopoulos GK, 2007, J CELL PHYSIOL, V213, P286, DOI 10.1002/jcp.21172 Nagayasu S., 2012, TOBACCO INDUCED DIS, V10 Navarro VJ, 2006, NEW ENGL J MED, V354, P731, DOI 10.1056/NEJMra052270 NENCINI P, 1989, DRUG ALCOHOL DEPEN, V23, P19, DOI 10.1016/0376-8716(89)90029-X O'Brien PJ, 2002, LAB ANIM-UK, V36, P313, DOI 10.1258/002367702320162414 OECD, 2003, OECD PRINC GOOD LAB OECD, 2008, TEST 407 REP DOS 28 Ozer J, 2008, TOXICOLOGY, V245, P194, DOI 10.1016/j.tox.2007.11.021 Palmes D, 2004, BIOMATERIALS, V25, P1601, DOI 10.1016/S0142-9612(03)00508-8 Peevers CG, 2010, LIVER INT, V30, P1242, DOI 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2010.02228.x Pratt DS, 2000, NEW ENGL J MED, V342, P1266, DOI 10.1056/NEJM200004273421707 Sireeratawong S., 2008, SONGKLANAKARIN J SCI, V30, P729 Stuyt RJL, 2011, LIVER INT, V31, P435, DOI 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2010.02440.x WANER T, 1991, VET RES COMMUN, V15, P73, DOI 10.1007/BF00497793 Woodman D. D., 1996, ANIMAL CLIN CHEM PRI, P71 Yegneswaran B, 2010, CLEV CLIN J MED, V77, P230, DOI 10.3949/ccjm.77a.09083 Alsalahi, Abdulsamad Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen Al-Mamary, Mohammed Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim Alabsi, Aied M. Shwter, Abdrabuh Alshawsh, Mohammed A. University of Malaya PV046/2012A; HIR Grant F000009-21001; Sana'a University The authors wish to thank the University of Malaya for providing research Grants (PV046/2012A) and HIR Grant (F000009-21001). Thanks go to Professor Mahmood Ameen Abdulla (main supervisor) from Molecular Medicine and Associated Professor Mohammed Ibrahim Bin Nooradin (cosupervisor), head of Pharmacy Department, faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya. Thanks also go to Sana'a University for the sponsorship of scholarship. Hindawi publishing corporation New york
Uncontrolled Keywords: Blood-pressure function tests leaves hepatotoxicity serum term regeneration biomarkers animals extract
Subjects: R Medicine > RK Dentistry
Divisions: Faculty of Dentistry
Depositing User: Mr Ahmad Azwan Azman
Date Deposited: 09 May 2013 01:59
Last Modified: 09 May 2013 01:59
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/6037

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