Objective and subjective hardness of a test item used for evaluating food mixing ability

Salleh, N.M. and Fueki, K. and Garrett, N.R. and Ohyama, T. (2007) Objective and subjective hardness of a test item used for evaluating food mixing ability. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 34 (3). pp. 174-183. ISSN 0305-182X


Download (111kB)
[img] PDF
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (563kB)


The aim of this study was to compare objective and subjective hardness of selected common foods with a wax cube used as a test item in a mixing ability test. Objective hardness was determined for 11 foods (cream cheese, boiled fish paste, boiled beef, apple, raw carrot, peanut, soft/hard rice cracker, jelly, plain chocolate and chewing gum) and the wax cube. Peak force (N) to compress each item was obtained from force-time curves generated with the Tensipresser. Perceived hardness ratings of each item were made by 30 dentate subjects (mean age 26.9 years) using a visual analogue scale (100 mm). These subjective assessments were given twice with a 1 week interval. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability were seen for all foods (ICC > 0.68; P < 0.001). One-way ANOVA found a significant effect of food type on both the objective hardness score and the subjective hardness rating (P < 0.001). The wax cube showed significant lower objective hardness score (32.6 N) and subjective hardness rating (47.7) than peanut (45.3 N, 63.5) and raw carrot (82.5 N, 78.4) P < 0.05; Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch (REGW)-F. A significant semilogarithmic relationship was found between the logarithm of objective hardness scores and subjective hardness ratings across twelve test items (r = 0.90; P < 0.001). These results suggest the wax cube has a softer texture compared with test foods traditionally used for masticatory performance test, such as peanut and raw carrot. The hardness of the wax cube could be modified to simulate a range of test foods by changing mixture ratio of soft and hard paraffin wax.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ISI Document Delivery No.: 134WP Times Cited: 15 Cited Reference Count: 46 Cited References: Asakawa A, 2005, J ORAL REHABIL, V32, P629, DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2005.01480.x Bourne M, 2002, FOOD TEXTURE VISCOSI BOYD J V, 1975, Journal of Texture Studies, V6, P507 BRANDT MARGARET A., 1963, JOUR FOOD SCI, V28, P404, DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1963.tb00218.x FEINE JS, 1994, J DENT RES, V73, P1646 Fontijn-Tekamp FA, 2000, J DENT RES, V79, P1519 Garrett N. R., 1992, International Journal of Prosthodontics, V5, P515 Garrett NR, 1998, J PROSTHET DENT, V79, P632, DOI 10.1016/S0022-3913(98)70069-1 GEERTMAN ME, 1994, J DENT RES, V73, P1858 Goh SM, 2003, J TEXTURE STUD, V34, P181, DOI 10.1111/j.1745-4603.2003.tb01374.x HARALDSON T, 1979, ACTA ODONTOL SCAND, V37, P207, DOI 10.3109/00016357909027583 Hirai T, 1994, Int J Prosthodont, V7, P454 JACK FR, 1993, J FOOD SCI, V58, P1313, DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb06173.x JIFFRY MTM, 1981, J ORAL REHABIL, V8, P113, DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2842.1981.tb00484.x KAPUR K, 1964, J PROSTHET DENT, V14, P483, DOI 10.1016/S0022-3913(64)80016-0 KAPUR KK, 1991, J PROSTHET DENT, V65, P272, DOI 10.1016/0022-3913(91)90174-U Karkazis HC, 2002, J ORAL REHABIL, V29, P986, DOI 10.1046/j.1365-2842.2002.00943.x KARLSSON S, 1991, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, V6, P259 LIEDBERG B, 1995, DYSPHAGIA, V10, P101, DOI 10.1007/BF00440079 MATHEVON E, 1995, J TEXTURE STUD, V26, P175, DOI 10.1111/j.1745-4603.1995.tb00792.x Matsui Y, 1996, J ORAL REHABIL, V23, P251, DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2842.1996.tb00849.x Mericske-Stern R, 1993, Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants, V8, P641 Meullenet JFC, 1997, J TEXTURE STUD, V28, P101, DOI 10.1111/j.1745-4603.1997.tb00104.x Miyawaki S, 2000, J DENT RES, V79, P1525 OLTHOFF LW, 1984, ARCH ORAL BIOL, V29, P899, DOI 10.1016/0003-9969(84)90089-X OLTHOFF LW, 1986, J TEXTURE STUD, V17, P275, DOI 10.1111/j.1745-4603.1986.tb00553.x Peyron MA, 2004, J DENT RES, V83, P578 Peyron MA, 1997, J DENT RES, V76, P789 Peyron MA, 2004, J NEUROPHYSIOL, V92, P773, DOI 10.1152/jn.01122.2003 Peyron MA, 2002, EXP BRAIN RES, V142, P41, DOI 10.1007/s00221-001-0916-5 Prinz JF, 1999, J ORAL REHABIL, V26, P243, DOI 10.1046/j.1365-2842.1999.00362.x Sato H, 2003, J ORAL REHABIL, V30, P68, DOI 10.1046/j.1365-2842.2003.01049.x Sato S, 2003, J ORAL REHABIL, V30, P146, DOI 10.1046/j.1365-2842.2003.01050.x SATO Y, 1989, J PROSTHET DENT, V62, P50, DOI 10.1016/0022-3913(89)90047-4 SHAFFER JP, 1995, ANNU REV PSYCHOL, V46, P561, DOI 10.1146/annurev.psych.46.1.561 SHAMA F, 1973, Journal of Texture Studies, V4, P344, DOI 10.1111/j.1745-4603.1973.tb00846.x SLAGTER AP, 1993, ARCH ORAL BIOL, V38, P195, DOI 10.1016/0003-9969(93)90028-K SLAGTER AP, 1992, J PROSTHET DENT, V68, P790, DOI 10.1016/0022-3913(92)90204-N SZCZESNIAK ALINA SURMACKA, 1963, JOUR FOOD SCI, V28, P397, DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1963.tb00217.x SZCZESNIAK AS, 1963, J FOOD SCI, V28, P385, DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1963.tb00215.x VANDERBILT A, 1994, J DENT RES, V73, P1677 Veyrune JL, 2000, EUR J ORAL SCI, V108, P83, DOI 10.1034/j.1600-0722.2000.90780.x WANG JS, 1990, J DENT RES, V69, P1546, DOI 10.1177/00220345900690090101 WAYLER AH, 1982, J GERONTOL, V37, P294 WELSCH RE, 1977, J AM STAT ASSOC, V72, P566, DOI 10.2307/2286218 YURKSTAS A, 1950, J APPL PHYSIOL, V3, P45 Salleh, N. M. Fueki, K. Garrett, N. R. Ohyama, T. Blackwell publishing Oxford
Uncontrolled Keywords: Food texture hardness food mixing ability masticatory function removable partial dentures masticatory function natural foods chewing gum muscle-activity implant texture wearers electromyography overdentures
Subjects: R Medicine > RK Dentistry
Divisions: Faculty of Dentistry > Dept of Prosthetic Dentistry
Depositing User: Ms Nursyafiqah Abd Malek
Date Deposited: 11 Jan 2013 02:34
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2013 02:34
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/4370

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year