Association between anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, neglected parasitic infections and socioeconomic factors in rural children of West Malaysia

Ngui, R.; Lim, Y.A.L.; Kin, L.C.; Chuen, C.S.; Jaffar, S. (2012) Association between anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, neglected parasitic infections and socioeconomic factors in rural children of West Malaysia. Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6 (3). ISSN 1935-2727

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    Abstract

    Background: Given that micronutrient deficiency, neglected intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) and poor socioeconomic status are closely linked, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between IPIs and nutritional status of children living in remote and rural areas in West Malaysia. Methods/Findings: A total of 550 children participated, comprising 520 (94.5) school children aged 7 to 12 years old, 30 (5.5) young children aged 1 to 6 years old, 254 (46.2) boys and 296 (53.8) girls. Of the 550 children, 26.2 were anaemic, 54.9 iron deficient and 16.9 had iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). The overall prevalence of helminths was 76.5 comprising Trichuris trichiura (71.5), Ascaris lumbricoides (41.6) and hookworm infection (13.5). It was observed that iron deficiency was significantly higher in girls (p = 0.032) compared to boys. Univariate analysis demonstrated that low level of mother's education (OR = 2.52; 95 CI = 1.38-4.60; p = 0.002), non working parents (OR = 2.18; 95 CI = 2.06-2.31; p = 0.013), low household income (OR = 2.02; 95 CI = 1.14-3.59; p = 0.015), T. trichiura (OR = 2.15; 95 CI = 1.21-3.81; p = 0.008) and A. lumbricoides infections (OR = 1.63; 95 CI = 1.04-2.55; p = 0.032) were significantly associated with the high prevalence of IDA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that low level of mother's education (OR = 1.48; 95 CI = 1.33-2.58; p < 0.001) was a significant predictor for IDA in these children. Conclusion: It is crucial that a comprehensive primary health care programme for these communities that includes periodic de-worming, nutrition supplement, improved household economy, education, sanitation status and personal hygiene are taken into consideration to improve the nutritional status of these children.

    Item Type: Article
    Creators:
    1. Ngui, R.
    2. Lim, Y.A.L.(Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA)
    3. Kin, L.C.
    4. Chuen, C.S.
    5. Jaffar, S.
    Journal or Publication Title: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases
    Additional Information: Ngui, Romano Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian Kin, Liam Chong Chuen, Chow Sek Jaffar, Shukri
    Uncontrolled Keywords: Anemia/*epidemiology Animals Child Child, Preschool Cross-Sectional Studies Female Helminths/classification/isolation & purification Humans Infant Iron/deficiency Malaysia/epidemiology Male Neglected Diseases/*epidemiology Parasitic Diseases/*epidemiology Prevalence Rural Population Socioeconomic Factors
    Subjects: R Medicine
    Divisions: Faculty of Medicine > School of Medicine
    Depositing User: Ms Johana Johari
    Date Deposited: 06 Dec 2012 14:56
    Last Modified: 06 Dec 2012 14:56
    URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/4044

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