Scanning electron microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175

Rahim, Z.H.A. and Thurairajah, N. (2011) Scanning electron microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 19 (2). pp. 137-146. ISSN 1678-7757

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Abstract

Introduction: Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. Objectives: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. Material and Methods: S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1)); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1)). Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One-and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. Results: It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p < 0.001). S. mutans adhering to 100 mu m(2) glass surfaces (with/without sucrose) exhibited reduced cell surface area, fluffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL(-1) corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL(-1) of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. Conclusion: The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ISI Document Delivery No.: 760VY Times Cited: 0 Cited Reference Count: 31 Cited References: Black C, 2004, ARCH ORAL BIOL, V49, P295, DOI 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2003.12.001 Cury J A, 2001, Braz Dent J, V12, P101 Duarte S, 2003, BIOL PHARM BULL, V26, P527, DOI 10.1248/bpb.26.527 DUBOIS M, 1956, ANAL CHEM, V28, P350, DOI 10.1021/ac60111a017 Fathilah AR, 2009, PAK J MED SCI, V25, P928 HAMADA S, 1980, MICROBIOL REV, V44, P331 Hannig C, 2008, ARCH ORAL BIOL, V53, P1003, DOI 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2008.04.005 KARJALAINEN S, 1993, CARIES RES, V27, P38 KIRTIKAR KR, 1933, INDIAN MED PLANTS, V3, P2128 Limsong J, 2004, J ETHNOPHARMACOL, V92, P281, DOI 10.1016/j.jep.2004.03.008 Marsh P, 2009, ORAL MICROBIOLOGY Marsh PD, 2004, CARIES RES, V38, P204, DOI 10.1159/000077756 Matsumoto M, 1999, CARIES RES, V33, P441, DOI 10.1159/000016549 MUKASA H, 1979, INFECT IMMUN, V23, P564 MURCHISON H, 1981, INFECT IMMUN, V34, P1044 Nalina T., 2007, American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, V3, P10 Nalina T., 2006, Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, V9, P1470 NORDINI HWW, 2006, ONLINE J BIOL SCI, V6, P51 OOSHIMA T, 1994, MICROBIOL IMMUNOL, V38, P39 Prabu GR, 2006, J APPL MICROBIOL, V101, P487, DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02912.x Rahim Zubaidah Haji Abd, 2006, J Oral Sci, V48, P117, DOI 10.2334/josnusd.48.117 Ramji N, 2002, J ETHNOPHARMACOL, V83, P149, DOI 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00194-0 Razak Fathilah Abdul, 2003, J Oral Sci, V45, P201 SEPPA L, 1988, CARIES RES, V22, P226 Sharma S, 2009, ANTIMICROB AGENTS CH, V53, P216, DOI 10.1128/AAC.00045-08 SMITH JR, 1985, LEARNING GUIDES MICR Song JH, 2007, J ETHNOPHARMACOL, V112, P419, DOI 10.1016/j.jep.2007.03.036 STAAT RH, 1980, INFECT IMMUN, V27, P675 TAO L, 1987, J BACTERIOL, V169, P2543 Wen ZZT, 2006, J BACTERIOL, V188, P2983, DOI 10.1128/JB.188.8.2983-2992.2006 1969, WEALTH INDIA DICT IN, V8 Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul Thurairajah, Nalina Malaysian government This project was supported by research grants (Vote F and IRPA) provided by the Malaysian government. The authors would like to acknowledge Ms Zubaidah Abu Hassan of the Electron Microscopy Unit, Medicine School, University of Malaya for their assistance in the electron microscopy procedure. Univ sao paulo fac odontologia bauru Bauru-sp
Uncontrolled Keywords: Bacterial adhesion Glucosyltransferases Streptococcus mutans Scanning electron microscope dental plaque adherence biofilm glucosyltransferase
Subjects: R Medicine > RK Dentistry
Divisions: Faculty of Dentistry > Dept of Oral Biology
Depositing User: Mr Ahmad Azwan Azman
Date Deposited: 10 Oct 2012 01:51
Last Modified: 10 Oct 2012 01:51
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/3751

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