The antimicrobial effect of 0.1 ppm ozonated water on 24-hour plaque microorganisms in situ
Sadatullah, S.; Mohamed, N.H.; Razak, F.A. (2012) The antimicrobial effect of 0.1 ppm ozonated water on 24-hour plaque microorganisms in situ. Brazilian Oral Research, 26 (2). pp. 126-131. ISSN 1806-8324
Ozone is a known oxidant present in the atmosphere and is commercially produced by simple ozonizer machines. It is a powerful antimicrobial agent in its gaseous and aqueous forms. Ozone readily dissolves in water and retains its antimicrobial property even in the dissolved state. In this study, the effect of 0.1 ppm ozonated water was analyzed on 24-hour supragingival plaque (SP) samples in situ. SP wascollected from the two most posterior teeth in the contra-lateral quadrants before and after a 30-second rinse with either distilled water (control group) or 0.1 ppm ozonated water (test group). The plaque was used to count the number of total bacteria, total anaerobic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans on selective agar media. The statistical analysis of the number of colony forming units (CFUs) obtained demonstrated a significant antimicrobial effect of ozonated water on the total bacteria (p = 0.01) and anaerobes (p = 0.02). A reduction in the post-rinse CFU count for Streptococcus mutans was also observed, but the effect was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). The Candida species was only grown from one sample. Ozonated water at the 0.1 ppm concentration was effective in reducing the load of 24-hour plaque bacteria, but it did not eliminate them completely.
|Item Type: ||Article|
- Sadatullah, S.
- Mohamed, N.H.
- Razak, F.A.
|Journal or Publication Title: ||Brazilian Oral Research|
|Additional Information: ||Export Date: 11 June 2012 Source: Scopus Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Sadatullah, S.; Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia; email: email@example.com References: Overman, P.R., Biofilm: a new view of plaque (2000) J Contemp Dent Pract, 15 (1), pp. 18-29. , Aug; Marsh, P.D., Dental plaque as a microbial biofilm (2004) Caries Res, 38 (3), pp. 204-211. , May-Jun; Hicks, J., Garcia-Godoy, F., Flaitz, C., Biological factors in dental caries: role of saliva and dental plaque in the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization (part 1) (2003) J Clin Pediatr Dent, 28 (1), pp. 47-52. , Fall; Loe, H., Theilade, E., Jensen, S.B., Experimental Gingivitis in man (1965) J Periodontol, 36, pp. 177-187. , May-Jun; Slots, J., The predominant cultivable microflora of advanced periodontitis (1977) Scand J Dent Res, 85 (2), pp. 114-121. , Jan-Feb; Terpenning, M.S., Taylor, G.W., Lopatin, D.E., Kerr, C.K., Dominguez, B.L., Loesche, W.J., Aspiration pneumonia: dental and oral risk factors in an older veteran population (2001) J Am Geriatr Soc, 49 (5), pp. 557-563. , May; Beck, J., Garcia, R., Heiss Gokonas, P.S., Offenbacher, S., Periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease (1996) J Periodontol, 67 (10 SUPPL.), pp. 1123-1137. , Oct; Mandel, I.D., Chemotherapeutic agents for controlling plaque and gingivitis (1988) J Clin Periodontol, 15 (8), pp. 488-98. , Sep; Arita, M., Nagayoshi, M., Fukuizumi, Masumi, S., Morikawa, M., Microbicidal efficacy of ozonated water against Candida albicans adhering to acrylic denture plates (2005) Oral Microbiol Immunol, 20 (4), pp. 206-210. , Aug; Bocci, V.A., Okinaga, T., Borrelli, E., Travagli, V., Zanardi, L., The ozone paradox: Ozone is a strong oxidant as well as a medical drug (2009) Med Res Rev, 29 (4), pp. 646-682. , Jul; Kosmider, B., Loader, J.E., Murphy, R.C., Mason, R.J., Apoptosis induced by ozone and oxysterols in human alveolar epithelial cells (2010) Free Radic Biol Med, 1 (11-48), pp. 1513-1524. , Jun; Broadwater, W.T., Hoehn, R.C., King, P.H., Sensitivity of three selected bacterial species to ozone (1973) Appl Microbiol, 26 (3), pp. 391-393. , ep; Johansson, E., Claesson, R., van Dijken, J.W., Antibacterial effect of ozone on cariogenic bacterial species (2009) J Dent, 37 (6), pp. 449-453. , Jun; Restaino, L., Frampton, E.W., Hemphill, J.B., Palnikar, P., Efficacy of ozonated water against various food-related microorganisms (1995) Appl Environ Microbiol, 61 (9), pp. 3471-3475. , Sep; Azarpazhooh, A., Limeback, H., The application of ozone in dentistry: a systemic review of literature (2008) J Dent, 36 (2), pp. 104-116. , Feb; Baysan, A., Whiley, R.A., Lynch, E., Antimicrobial effect of a novel ozone- generating device on micro-organisms associated with primary root carious lesions in vitro (2000) Caries Res, 34 (6), pp. 498-501. , Nov-Dec; Huth, K.C., Paschos, E., Brand, K., Hickel, R., Effect of ozone on non-cavitated fissure carious lesions in permanent molars. 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|Uncontrolled Keywords: ||Bacteria Dental plaque Ozone|
|Subjects: ||R Medicine > RK Dentistry|
|Divisions: ||Faculty of Dentistry > Dept of Oral Biology|
|Depositing User: ||Mr Ahmad Azwan Azman|
|Date Deposited: ||14 Jun 2012 12:25|
|Last Modified: ||14 Jun 2012 12:25|
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