Oral lichen planus and lichenoid reactions: etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and malignant transformation

Ismail, S.B. and Kumar, S.K. and Zain, R.B. (2007) Oral lichen planus and lichenoid reactions: etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and malignant transformation. Journal of Oral Science, 49 (2). pp. 89-106. ISSN 1343-4934

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Abstract

Lichen planus, a chronic autoimmune, mucocutaneous disease affects the oral mucosa (oral lichen planus or OLP) besides the skin, genital mucosa, scalp and nails. An immune mediated pathogenesis is recognized in lichen planus although the exact etiology is unknown. The disease most commonly affects middle-aged females. Oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) which are considered variants of OLP, may be regarded as a disease by itself or as an exacerbation of an existing OLP, by the presence of medication (lichenoid drug reactions) or dental materials (contact hypersensitivity). OLP usually presents as white striations (Wickham's striae), white papules, white plaque, erythema, erosions or blisters. Diagnosis of OLP is established either by clinical examination only or by clinical examination with histopathologic confirmation. Direct immunofluorescence examination is only used as an adjunct to the above method of diagnosis and to rule out specific autoimmune diseases such as pemphigus and pemphigoid. Histopathologic features of OLP and OLR are similar with suggestions of certain discriminatory features by some authors. Topical corticosteroids are the treatment of choice for OLP although several other medications have been studied including retinoids, tacrolimus, cyclosporine and photodynamic therapy. Certain OLP undergo malignant transformation and the exact incidence and mechanisms are still controversial. In this paper, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and malignant transformation of OLP and OLR have been reviewed.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Prof Dr Rosnah Mohd Zain, Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cell transformation; cellular immunity; fluorescent antibody technique; hepatitis C; human; lichen planus; pathology; photochemotherapy; review; topical drug administration, Oral squamous cell carcinoma, OSCC, lichenoid lesions, lichen planus, oral cancer, oral tumours, pemphigus, traumatic eosinophilic granuloma, aphthous ulcers, oral mucosal lesions, betel chewers mucosa, betel quid related lesions, betel quid, areca quid, tobacco quid, oral cancer screening, training and calibration, early detection, oral cancer awareness, biobanking, tissue bank, databank, oral cancer, tissue bank, research credibility, research ethics.
Subjects: R Medicine
R Medicine > RK Dentistry
R Medicine > RK Dentistry > Oral surger
Divisions: Faculty of Dentistry > Dept of Oral Pathology & Oral Medicine & Periodontology
Depositing User: Prof. Dr. Rosnah Mohd Zain
Date Deposited: 16 Jan 2012 04:45
Last Modified: 28 Oct 2014 04:41
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/2439

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