Using bootstrapped quantile regression analysis for small sample research in applied linguistics: Some methodological considerations

Nikitina, Larisa and Paidi, Rohayati and Furuoka, Fumitaka (2019) Using bootstrapped quantile regression analysis for small sample research in applied linguistics: Some methodological considerations. PLoS ONE, 14 (1). e0210668. ISSN 1932-6203

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210668

Abstract

Quantitative applied linguistics research often takes place in restricted settings of an intact language classroom, workplace, phonetics laboratory or longitudinal sample. In such settings the samples tend to be small, which raises several methodological problems. The main aim of the current paper is to give a detailed explanation of methodological and practical implications inherent in a robust statistical method called bootstrapped quantile regression (BQR) analysis. Importantly for applied linguistics research, the BQR method could help to deal with methodological difficulties inherent in small sample studies. The current study employed a moderately small sample (N = 27) of students learning the Japanese language in a Malaysian public university. It examined the relationships between the students’ language learning motivation (specifically, integrative orientation), the students’ images or stereotypes about Japan and their global attitudes toward the target language country and its people. The findings indicated that there was a statistically significant relationship between the students’ attitudes toward the target language country and their integrative orientation. In addition, these attitudes were found to be the most constant determinant of the integrative orientation. Besides the applied linguistics research, the BQR method can be used in a variety of the human sciences research where a sample size is small. © 2019 Nikitina et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Foreign language; Language; Language anxiety
Subjects: P Language and Literature > P Philology. Linguistics
Divisions: Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
Faculty of Languages and Linguistics
Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic & International) Office > Asia-Europe Institute
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 19 Feb 2020 01:16
Last Modified: 19 Feb 2020 01:16
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/23830

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