Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity studies of nanocrystalline cellulose from the production waste of rubber-wood and kenaf-bast fibers

Tuerxun, Duolikun and Pulingam, Thiruchelvi and Nordin, Nurul Izza and Chen, You Wei and Kamaldin, Jahangir and Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd and Lee, Hwei Voon and Leo, Bey Fen and Johan, Mohd Rafie (2019) Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity studies of nanocrystalline cellulose from the production waste of rubber-wood and kenaf-bast fibers. European Polymer Journal, 116. pp. 352-360. ISSN 0014-3057

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2019.04.021

Abstract

In the present study, nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was successfully prepared from raw rubberwood fiber (RRaw) and raw Kenaf-bast fiber (KRaw) via a series of multi-step chemical-mechanical purification techniques, namely, alkalization treatment, hydrogen peroxide bleaching and acid hydrolysis. The obtained nanocellulose yields were 27.51% and 32.53% for RRaw and KRaw, respectively. The crystallinity index of the RRaw and KRaw based nanocellulose increased from 61.21% to 74.34% and 54.12% to 73.19%, respectively, after acid hydrolysis. Morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) clearly showed the formation of rod-shaped NCC with an average diameter of 5.14 ± 1.91 nm and 5.27 ± 2.38 nm for RRaw and KRaw, respectively. Their size distributions significantly reduced compared to raw cellulose biomass fiber and extracted cellulose (EC). Furthermore, changes in the Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) peaks showed that amorphous regions (e.g. hemicelluloses and lignin) were successfully removed from the fibre surface. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of as-synthesized NCC confirmed its thermostability. Cytotoxicity tests demonstrated that NCC did not exhibit cellular toxicity upon exposure to macrophages (RAW 264.7) and HaCaT cells up to 700 µg mL−1. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cellulose; Toxicity; Nanomaterials; Kenaf-bast; Rubberwood
Subjects: R Medicine
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering
Faculty of Medicine
Deputy Vice Chancellor (Research & Innovation) Office > Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 16 Dec 2019 04:00
Last Modified: 16 Dec 2019 04:00
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/23224

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