Microarray gene expression profiling in colorectal (HCT116) and hepatocellular (HepG2) carcinoma cell lines treated with Melicope ptelefolia leaf extract reveals transcriptome profiles exhibiting anticancer activity

Kabir, Mohammad Faujul and Ali, Johari Mohd and Hashim, Onn Haji (2018) Microarray gene expression profiling in colorectal (HCT116) and hepatocellular (HepG2) carcinoma cell lines treated with Melicope ptelefolia leaf extract reveals transcriptome profiles exhibiting anticancer activity. PeerJ, 6. e5203. ISSN 2167-8359

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5203

Abstract

Background. We have previously reported anticancer activities of Melicope ptelefolia (MP) leaf extracts on four different cancer cell lines. However, the underlying mechanisms of actions have yet to be deciphered. In the present study, the anticancer activity of MP hexane extract (MP-HX) on colorectal (HCT116) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines was characterized through microarray gene expression profiling. Methods. HCT116 and HepG2 cells were treated with MP-HX for 24 hr. Total RNA was extracted from the cells and used for transcriptome profiling using Applied Biosystem GeneChipTM Human Gene 2.0 ST Array. Gene expression data was analysed using an Applied Biosystems Expression Console and Transcriptome Analysis Console software. Pathway enrichment analyses was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. The microarray data was validated by profiling the expression of 17 genes through quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Results. MP-HX induced differential expression of 1,290 and 1,325 genes in HCT116 and HepG2 cells, respectively (microarray data fold change, MA_FC ≥ ±2.0). The direction of gene expression change for the 17 genes assayed through RT-qPCR agree with the microarray data. In both cell lines, MP-HX modulated the expression of many genes in directions that support antiproliferative activity. IPA software analyses revealed MP-HX modulated canonical pathways, networks and biological processes that are as- sociated with cell cycle, DNA replication, cellular growth and cell proliferation. In both cell lines, upregulation of genes which promote apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition were observed, while genes that are typically overexpressed in diverse human cancers or those that promoted cell cycle progression, DNA replication and cellular proliferation were downregulated. Some of the genes upregulated by MP-HX include pro-apoptotic genes (DDIT3, BBC3, JUN), cell cycle arresting (CDKN1A, CDKN2B), growth arrest/repair (TP53, GADD45A) and metastasis suppression (NDRG1). MP-HX downregulated the expression of genes that could promote anti-apoptotic effect, cell cycle progression, tumor development and progression, which include BIRC5, CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNB2, CCNE2, CDK1/2/6, GINS2, HELLS, MCM2/10 PLK1, RRM2 and SKP2. It is interesting to note that all six top-ranked genes proposed to be cancer- associated (PLK1, MCM2, MCM3, MCM7, MCM10 and SKP2) were downregulated by MP-HX in both cell lines. Discussion. The present study showed that the anticancer activities of MP-HX are exerted through its actions on genes regulating apoptosis, cell proliferation, DNA replication and cell cycle progression. These findings further project the potential use of MP as a nutraceutical agent for cancer therapeutics.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cancer; Colorectal cancer; HCT116; Hepatocellular carcinoma; HepG2; Ingenuity pathway analysis; Melicope ptelefolia; Microarray; Transcriptome profiling
Subjects: R Medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 31 Jul 2019 03:39
Last Modified: 31 Jul 2019 03:39
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/21727

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