Risk factors of vitamin D deficiency among 15-year-old adolescents participating in the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (MyHeARTs)

Quah, Shiao Wei and Majid, Hazreen Abdul and Al-Sadat, Nabilla and Yahya, Abqariyah and Su, Tin Tin and Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid (2018) Risk factors of vitamin D deficiency among 15-year-old adolescents participating in the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (MyHeARTs). PLoS ONE, 13 (7). e0200736. ISSN 1932-6203

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200736

Abstract

Background This study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D 50 nmol/L) among 15-year-old Malaysian adolescents. By identifying potential risk factors, prevention strategies and interventions can be carried out to improve the vitamin D status in adolescents. Methods and findings Stratified random sampling design was used to select adolescents from 15 urban and rural secondary schools in Selangor, Perak and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data collection was carried out from 1 st April 2014 to 30 th June 2014. Information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, sun exposure and sun protective behaviours, clinical data and environmental factors were collected. Blood for total vitamin D was sampled. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regressions were performed. Total 1061 participants were analyzed (62% were female; mean age 15.1 ± 0.4 years). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 33%. Mean vitamin D was lower in female (53 ± 15 nmol), obese (body fat percentage (25% m ; 33.8% f ) (56 ± 16 nmol/L), Malays (58 ± 18 nmol/L) and Indians (58 ± 15 nmol/L). In multivariate analysis, female (OR = 5.5; 95% CI: 3.4–7.5), Malay (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.3–8.0), Indian (OR = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.6–12.0) and those always wearing long sleeve (OR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.1–5.4) were more likely to have vitamin D deficiency. For female participants, ethnicity {Malays (OR = 6.7; 95% CI: 2.0–18.5), Indian (OR = 4.5; 95% CI: 1.8–19.3)} was an important risk factors. Cloud cover, school residence, skin pigmentation, sun-exposure and sun-protective behaviours were not significant risk factors. The limitation of this study was recall bias as it relied on self-reported on the sun exposure and protective behaviours. The diet factors were not included in this analysis. Conclusions The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency among Malaysian adolescents was considerable. Gender, ethnicity and clothing style were important risk factors.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Adolescent; Clothing; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Malaysia; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Vitamin D Deficiency
Subjects: R Medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 18 Apr 2019 06:36
Last Modified: 18 Apr 2019 06:36
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/21004

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