Venom Proteome of Spine-Bellied Sea Snake (Hydrophis curtus) from Penang, Malaysia: Toxicity Correlation, Immunoprofiling and Cross-Neutralization by Sea Snake Antivenom

Tan, Choo Hock and Tan, Kae Yi and Ng, Tzu Shan and Sim, Si Mui and Tan, Nget Hong (2018) Venom Proteome of Spine-Bellied Sea Snake (Hydrophis curtus) from Penang, Malaysia: Toxicity Correlation, Immunoprofiling and Cross-Neutralization by Sea Snake Antivenom. Toxins, 11 (1). p. 3. ISSN 2072-6651

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010003

Abstract

The venom proteome of Hydrophis curtus (synonym: Lapemis hardwickii) from Penang, Malaysia was investigated with nano-electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-LCMS/MS) of the reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) venom fractions. Thirty distinct protein forms were identified as toxins from ten families. The three major protein families were phospholipase A2 (PLA2, 62.0% of total venom proteins), three-finger toxin (3FTX, 26.33%) and cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRiSP, 9.00%). PLA2 comprises diverse homologues (11 forms), predominantly the acidic subtypes (48.26%). 3FTX composed of one short alpha-neurotoxin (SNTX, 22.89%) and four long alpha-neurotoxins (LNTX, 3.44%). Both SNTX and LNTX were lethal in mice (intravenous LD50 = 0.10 and 0.24 µg/g, respectively) but the PLA2 were non-lethal (LD50 >1 µg/g). The more abundant and toxic SNTX appeared to be the main driver of venom lethality (holovenom LD50 = 0.20 µg/g). The heterologous Sea Snake Antivenom (SSAV, Australia) effectively cross-neutralized the venom (normalized potency = 9.35 mg venom neutralized per g antivenom) and the two neurotoxins in vivo, with the LNTX being neutralized more effectively (normalized potency = 3.5 mg toxin/g antivenom) than SNTX (normalized potency = 1.57 mg/g). SSAV immunorecognition was strong toward PLA2 but moderate-to-weak toward the alpha-neurotoxins, indicating that neutralization of the alpha-neurotoxins should be further improved.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Lapemis hardwickii; immunoreactivity; alpha-neurotoxins; three-finger toxins; phospholipase A2; envenomation; neutralization
Subjects: R Medicine
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 11 Jan 2019 02:42
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2019 02:42
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/19945

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