Allometry and scaling of the intraocular pressure and aqueous humour flow rate in vertebrate eyes

Zouache, M.A. and Eames, I. and Samsudin, A. (2016) Allometry and scaling of the intraocular pressure and aqueous humour flow rate in vertebrate eyes. PLoS ONE, 11 (3). e0151490. ISSN 1932-6203

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151490

Abstract

In vertebrates, intraocular pressure (IOP) is required to maintain the eye into a shape allowing it to function as an optical instrument. It is sustained by the balance between the production of aqueous humour by the ciliary body and the resistance to its outflow from the eye. Dysregulation of the IOP is often pathological to vision. High IOP may lead to glaucoma, which is in man the second most prevalent cause of blindness. Here, we examine the importance of the IOP and rate of formation of aqueous humour in the development of vertebrate eyes by performing allometric and scaling analyses of the forces acting on the eye during head movement and the energy demands of the cornea, and testing the predictions of the models against a list of measurements in vertebrates collated through a systematic review. We show that the IOP has a weak dependence on body mass, and that in order to maintain the focal length of the eye, it needs to be an order of magnitude greater than the pressure drop across the eye resulting from gravity or head movement. This constitutes an evolutionary constraint that is common to all vertebrates. In animals with cornea-based optics, this constraint also represents a condition to maintain visual acuity. Estimated IOPs were found to increase with the evolution of terrestrial animals. The rate of formation of aqueous humour was found to be adjusted to the metabolic requirements of the cornea, scaling as Vac0.67, where Vac is the volume of the anterior chamber. The present work highlights an interdependence between IOP and aqueous flow rate crucial to ocular function that must be considered to understand the evolution of the dioptric apparatus. It should also be taken into consideration in the prevention and treatment of glaucoma.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Animals; Anterior Chamber; Aqueous Humor; Body Weight; Cornea; Intraocular Pressure; Models, Biological; Vertebrates
Subjects: R Medicine
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine
Depositing User: Ms. Juhaida Abd Rahim
Date Deposited: 14 May 2018 07:27
Last Modified: 14 May 2018 07:27
URI: http://eprints.um.edu.my/id/eprint/18656

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